Original Contribution| Volume 5, ISSUE 5, P358-363, December 2004

Long-Term Results of Combined-Modality Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Sixty-eight patients with inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) received treatment in 2 prospective randomized trials of multimodality therapy for locally advanced breast cancer. The treatment plan consisted of 3 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with CAF (cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/5-fluorouracil [5-FU]) or CEF (cyclophosphamide/ epirubicin/5-FU) followed by surgery and 6 adjuvant courses of CAF or CEF alternated with CMF (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-FU). Radiation therapy was administered at the end of adjuvant treatment. All patients with estrogen receptor—positive tumors received tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years. The response rate to induction chemotherapy was 73.6% (95% CI, 61.4%–83.5%): 4 of 68 patients (6%) exhibited a pathologic remission of primary breast tumor (persistent disease in the axilla), and 2 patients (3%) exhibited a pathologic complete response. Median follow-up was 10 years (range, 5 months to 14.7 years). Diseasefree survival (DFS) rates at 5 and 10 years were 29% and 20%, respectively, and median DFS was 2.2 years (range, 3.8 months to 11.5 years). Overall survival (OS) rates at 5 and 10 years were 44% and 32%, respectively, and median OS was 4 years (range, 5 months to 14.7 years). Significant prognostic factors for DFS and OS were the number of axillary nodes and residual disease in the breast at surgery. This analysis confirmed that patients with IBC obtained significant long-term survival benefit from combined-modality therapy.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Clinical Breast Cancer
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Lucas F
        • Perez-Mesa C
        Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.
        Cancer. 1978; 41: 1595-1605
        • Levine P
        • Steinhorn S
        • Ries L
        Inflammatory breast cancer. The experience of the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 1985; 74: 291-297
        • Jaiyesimi AI
        • Budzar AU
        • Hortobagyi G
        Inflammatory breast cancer: a review.
        J Clin Oncol. 1992; 10: 1014-1024
        • Thoms W
        • McNeese M
        • Fletcher G
        Multimodal treatment for inflammatory breast cancer.
        J Int Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1989; 17: 739-745
        • Maloisel F
        • Doufour P
        • Bergerat J
        • et al.
        Results of initial doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy for inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.
        Cancer. 1990; 65: 851-855
        • Haagensen CD
        Disease of the breast. WB Saunders, Philadelphia1971: 560-584
        • Baldini E
        • Gardin G
        • Giannessi PG
        • et al.
        A randomized trial of chemotherapy with or without estrogenic recruitment in locally advanced breast cancer.
        Tumori. 1997; 83: 829-833
        • Baldini E
        • Gardin G
        • Giannessi PG
        • et al.
        Accelerated versus standard CEF/CMF: a randomized phase III trial in locally advanced breast cancer.
        Ann Oncol. 2003; 14: 227-232
        • Kaplan EL
        • Meier P
        Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observation.
        J Am Stat Assoc. 1958; 53: 457-481
        • McBride CM
        • Hortobagyi GN
        Primary inflammatory carcinoma of the female breast: staging and treatment possibilities.
        Surgery. 1985; 98: 792-797
        • Chauvergne J
        • Durand M
        • Richaud P
        • et al.
        Traitement combiné des cancers mammaires localisées à haute risque mètastatique: resultats d'une ètude prospective controlée.
        J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. 1981; 10: 75-85
        • Pouillard P
        • Palangie T
        • Jouve M
        Cancer inflammatoire du sein traitèe par une association de chèmiotherapie e d'irradiation.
        Bull Cancer. 1981; 68: 171-176
        • Slamon DJ
        • Leyland-Jones B
        • Shak S
        • et al.
        Use of chemotherapy plus monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 11: 783-792
        • Zylberg B
        • Salat Baroux J
        • Ravina JH
        Initial chemotherapy in inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.
        Cancer. 1982; 49: 1537-1543
        • Kueuer HM
        • Newman LA
        • Smith TL
        • et al.
        Clinical course of breast cancer patients with complete pathologic primary tumor and axillary lymph node response to doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
        J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 460-469
        • Merajever SD
        • Weber BC
        • Cody R
        • et al.
        Breast conservation and prolonged chemotherapy fro locally advanced breast cancer: summation dose-intensity.
        J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15: 2873-2881
        • von Minckwitz G
        • Raab G
        • Blohmer JU
        • et al.
        Primary chemotherapy adapted on in vivo chemosensitivity in patients with primary breast cancer: the pilot GEPARTRIO study.
        Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2003; 23 (Abstract #85).: 22