Advertisement

Male Breast Cancer: An Updated Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Data Analysis

  • Ning Liu
    Affiliations
    Washington University Brown School of Public Health, St. Louis, MO
    Search for articles by this author
  • Kimberly J. Johnson
    Affiliations
    Washington University Brown School of Public Health, St. Louis, MO

    Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO
    Search for articles by this author
  • Cynthia X. Ma
    Correspondence
    Address for correspondence: Cynthia X. Ma, MD, PhD, Section of Medical Oncology, Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110
    Affiliations
    Washington University Brown School of Public Health, St. Louis, MO

    Section of Medical Oncology, Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Background

      Male breast cancer is rare and understudied compared with female breast cancer. A current comparison with female breast cancer could assist in bridging this gap. Although conflicting data have been reported on male and female survival outcomes, data from 1973 through 2005 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program have demonstrated that the improvement in breast cancer survival in men has fallen behind that of women. As treatment for breast cancer has improved significantly, an updated analysis using a contemporary population is necessary.

      Materials and Methods

      An analysis of SEER data from patients with a diagnosis of primary breast cancer from 2005 to 2010 were included. A Cox regression model was used to examine the association between sex and breast cancer mortality after controlling for prognostic factors, including age, race, marital status, disease stage, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, lymph node involvement, tumor grade, surgery, and geography. Subgroup analyses were performed by race and stage.

      Results

      We included a total of 289,673 breast cancer cases (2054 men) with a diagnosis from 2005 to 2010. The 5-year survival rate for male patients was lower than that for female patients (82.8% vs. 88.5%). After controlling for other factors, the risk of death in men was 43% greater than that in women during the follow-up period (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.61). Similar results were noted in the race and stage subgroup analyses.

      Conclusion

      In recent years, male breast cancer patients have had worse survival outcomes compared with those of female patients.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Clinical Breast Cancer
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Siegel R.L.
        • Miller K.D.
        • Jemal A.
        Cancer statistics, 2017.
        CA Cancer J Clin. 2017; 67: 7-30
        • Korde L.A.
        • Zujewski J.A.
        • Kamin L.
        • et al.
        Multidisciplinary meeting on male breast cancer: summary and research recommendations.
        J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 2114-2122
        • Chen X.
        • Liu X.
        • Zhang L.
        • Li S.
        • Shi Y.
        • Tong Z.
        Poorer survival of male breast cancer compared with female breast cancer patients may be due to biological differences.
        Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013; 43: 954-963
        • El-Tamer M.B.
        • Komenaka I.K.
        • Troxel A.
        • et al.
        Men with breast cancer have better disease-specific survival than women.
        Arch Surg. 2004; 139: 1079-1082
        • Kwong A.
        • Chau W.W.
        • Mang O.W.
        • et al.
        Male breast cancer: a population-based comparison with female breast cancer in Hong Kong, Southern China: 1997-2006.
        Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21: 1246-1253
        • Liu D.
        • Xie G.
        • Chen M.
        Clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of male breast cancer.
        Int J Clin Oncol. 2014; 19: 280-287
        • Baojiang L.
        • Tingting L.
        • Gang L.
        • Li Z.
        Male breast cancer: A retrospective study comparing survival with female breast cancer.
        Oncol Lett. 2012; 4: 642-646
        • Marchal F.
        • Salou M.
        • Marchal C.
        • Lesur A.
        • Desandes E.
        Men with breast cancer have same disease-specific and event-free survival as women.
        Ann Surg Oncol. 2009; 16: 972-978
        • Iorfida M.
        • Bagnardi V.
        • Rotmensz N.
        • et al.
        Outcome of male breast cancer: a matched single-institution series.
        Clin Breast Cancer. 2014; 14: 371-377
        • Muller A.C.
        • Gani C.
        • Rehm H.M.
        • et al.
        Are there biologic differences between male and female breast cancer explaining inferior outcome of men despite equal stage and treatment?.
        Strahlenther Onkol. 2012; 188: 782-787
        • Scott-Conner C.E.
        • Jochimsen P.R.
        • Menck H.R.
        • Winchester D.J.
        An analysis of male and female breast cancer treatment and survival among demographically identical pairs of patients.
        Surgery. 1999; 126: 775-780
        • Hill T.D.
        • Khamis H.J.
        • Tyczynski J.E.
        • Berkel H.J.
        Comparison of male and female breast cancer incidence trends, tumor characteristics, and survival.
        Ann Epidemiol. 2005; 15: 773-780
        • Thalib L.
        • Hall P.
        Survival of male breast cancer patients: population-based cohort study.
        Cancer Sci. 2009; 100: 292-295
        • Willsher P.C.
        • Leach I.H.
        • Ellis I.O.
        • Bourke J.B.
        • Blamey R.W.
        • Robertson J.F.
        A comparison outcome of male breast cancer with female breast cancer.
        Am J Surg. 1997; 173: 185-188
        • Xia L.P.
        • Zhou F.F.
        • Guo G.F.
        • et al.
        Chinese female breast cancer patients show a better overall survival than their male counterparts.
        Chin Med J (Engl). 2010; 123: 2347-2352
        • Miao H.
        • Verkooijen H.M.
        • Chia K.S.
        • et al.
        Incidence and outcome of male breast cancer: an international population-based study.
        J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29: 4381-4386
        • Gnerlich J.L.
        • Deshpande A.D.
        • Jeffe D.B.
        • Seelam S.
        • Kimbuende E.
        • Margenthaler J.A.
        Poorer survival outcomes for male breast cancer compared with female breast cancer may be attributable to in-stage migration.
        Ann Surg Oncol. 2011; 18: 1837-1844
        • Greif J.M.
        • Pezzi C.M.
        • Klimberg V.S.
        • Bailey L.
        • Zuraek M.
        Gender differences in breast cancer: analysis of 13,000 breast cancers in men from the National Cancer Data Base.
        Ann Surg Oncol. 2012; 19: 3199-3204
        • Anderson W.F.
        • Jatoi I.
        • Tse J.
        • Rosenberg P.S.
        Male breast cancer: a population-based comparison with female breast cancer.
        J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 232-239
        • Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group
        Aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen in early breast cancer: patient-level meta-analysis of the randomised trials.
        Lancet. 2015; 386: 1341-1352
      1. National Cancer Institute: Surveillance Epideimiology, and End Results. Overview of the SEER Program, 2017.
        (Available at:)
        http://seer.cancer.gov/about/overview.html
        Date accessed: July 12, 2017
        • Lerner B.H.
        “To see today with the eyes of tomorrow”: a history of screening mammography.
        Can Bull Med Hist. 2003; 20: 299-321
        • Sturgeon S.R.
        • Schairer C.
        • Gail M.
        • McAdams M.
        • Brinton L.A.
        • Hoover R.N.
        Geographic variation in mortality from breast cancer among white women in the United States.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995; 87: 1846-1853
        • Hammond M.E.
        • Hayes D.F.
        • Dowsett M.
        • et al.
        American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer (unabridged version).
        Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010; 134: e48-72
      2. Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results. CS lymph nodes.
        (Available at:)
        • Ruddy K.J.
        • Winer E.P.
        Male breast cancer: risk factors, biology, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship.
        Ann Oncol. 2013; 24: 1434-1443
        • Fentiman I.S.
        • Fourquet A.
        • Hortobagyi G.N.
        Male breast cancer.
        Lancet. 2006; 367: 595-604
        • Rizzolo P.
        • Silvestri V.
        • Tommasi S.
        • et al.
        Male breast cancer: genetics, epigenetics, and ethical aspects.
        Ann Oncol. 2013; 24: viii75-viii82
        • Perou C.M.
        • Sorlie T.
        • Eisen M.B.
        • et al.
        Molecular portraits of human breast tumours.
        Nature. 2000; 406: 747-752
        • Van Buuren G.
        • Raab G.
        • Caputo A.
        Mice: multivariate imputation by chained equations in R.
        J Stat Softw. 2011; 45: 1-65