- Bauer K.R.
- Brown M.
- Cress R.D.
- Parise C.A.
- Caggiano V.
- Bauer K.R.
- Brown M.
- Cress R.D.
- Parise C.A.
- Caggiano V.
Intrinsic Subgroups of Breast Cancer
|Subtype||Signaling Pathways||Important Markers||Chemosensitivity||Potential Therapy|
|BL1||Cell cycle, proliferation, DNA damage pathways||ATR, BRCA, MYC, NRAS, Ki-67||Very good||Cisplatin, PARP inhibitors|
|BL2||Cell cycle, proliferation, growth factor signaling, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis||EGFR, MET, EPHA2, TP53||Very poor||Cisplatin; PARP and growth factor inhibitors|
|IM||Immune cell signaling processes||JAK1/2, STAT1/4, IRF1/7/8, TNF||Medium||—|
|M||EMT, cell motility, differentiation, proliferation||Wnt, ALK, TGF-β||Medium||PI3K/mTOR, Src inhibitors|
|MSL||EMT, cell motility, differentiation, growth factor signaling, angiogenesis||EGFR, PDGFR, ERK1/2, VEGFR2||Medium||PI3K/mTOR, Src inhibitors|
|LAR||Androgen/estrogen metabolism, steroid synthesis, porphyrin metabolism||AR, FOXA1, KRT18, XBP1||Poor||AR antagonist; PI3K, Hsp90 inhibitors|
Genetic Markers in TNBC
|Gene||Localization||Alteration Type||Main Function||Prognostic Significance||Predictive Significance||References|
|TP53||17p13.1||Inactivating mutation||Genome integrity, DNA repair and apoptosis||Poor prognostic factor, worse OS and increased metastatic risk||Poor response to chemotherapy|
|BRCA1||17q21.31||Inactivating mutation, epigenetic changes||DNA double-strand break repair||Poor prognostic factor||Higher response to neoadjuvant anthracycline and taxane therapy, response to platinum-based therapy, potential predictor for response to PARP inhibitors|
Randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel once per week compared with nanoparticle albumin-bound nab-paclitaxel once per week or ixabepilone with bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: CALGB 40502/NCCTG N063H (Alliance).
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33: 2361-2369
|PIK3CA||3q26.32||Activating mutation||Survival, differentiation, proliferation||Poor prognostic factors||Potential predictors for response to PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors|
|PTEN||10q23.31||Deletion, inactivating mutation||Higher sensitivity to combination therapy of PI3K and androgen receptor inhibitors|
|EGFR||7p11.2||Amplification, overexpression||Cell proliferation, metastasis||Poor prognostic factor||Potential predictor for response to anti-EGFR therapy|
|FGFR1||8p11.23||Amplification||Proliferation, survival, migration, differentiation||Unknown||In vitro sensitivity to FGFR ATP-competitive inhibitor brivanib|
|FGFR2||10q26.13||In vitro sensitivity to FGFR ATP-competitive inhibitor PD173074|
|VEGFRA||6p21.1||Overexpression, amplification, mutation||Angiogenesis, invasion, metastases||Unknown||Addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy significantly elevates pCR rates|
Impact of the addition of carboplatin and/or bevacizumab to neoadjuvant once-per-week paclitaxel followed by dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide on pathologic complete response rates in stage II to III triple-negative breast cancer: CALGB 40603.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33: 13-21
|AR||Xq12||Overexpression||Cell signaling||Controversial; probably better DFS and OS||Lower sensitivity to chemotherapy, higher sensitivity to AR inhibitors (enzalutamide, bicalutamide), PI3K inhibitors, and their combination|
|BCL2||18q21.33||Overexpression||Antiapoptotic||Positive prognostic factor||Negative predictor of response to neoadjuvant and adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy, positive predictor of response to CMF treatment|
- Tutt A.
- Paul E.
- Kilburn L.
- et al.
- Litton J.
- Rugo H.S.
- Ettl J.
- et al.
Tyrosine Kinase Receptors
- Nabholtz J.M.
- Abrial C.
- Mouret-Reynier M.A.
- et al.
- Sikov W.M.
- Berry D.A.
- Perou C.M.
- et al.
- Data profile
- Subtyping of triple-negative breast cancer: implications for therapy.Cancer. 2015; 121: 8-16
- Identification and use of biomarkers in treatment strategies for triple-negative breast cancer subtypes.J Pathol. 2014; 232: 142-150
- Management of triple negative breast cancer.Breast. 2010; 19: 312-321
- Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype: a population-based study from the California Cancer Registry.Cancer. 2007; 109: 1721-1728
- Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.JAMA. 2006; 295: 2492
- The prognostic impact of age in patients with triple-negative breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 138: 591-599
- Triple-negative breast cancer: clinical features and patterns of recurrence.Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13: 4429-4434
- Higher incidence of aggressive breast cancers in African-American women: a review.J Natl Med Assoc. 2008; 100: 698-702
- Triple-negative and HER2-overexpressing breast cancers exhibit an elevated risk and an earlier occurrence of cerebral metastases.Eur J Cancer. 2009; 45: 2792-2798
- Clinicopathologic features, patterns of recurrence, and survival among women with triple-negative breast cancer in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.Cancer. 2012; 118: 5463-5472
- Metastatic behavior of breast cancer subtypes.J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 3271-3277
- Phenotypic evaluation of the basal-like subtype of invasive breast carcinoma.Mod Pathol. 2006; 19: 264-271
- Understanding the biology of triple-negative breast cancer.Ann Oncol. 2012; 23: vi13-vi18
- Molecular portraits of human breast tumours.Nature. 2000; 406: 747-752
- Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001; 98: 10869-10874
- Supervised risk predictor of breast cancer based on intrinsic subtypes.J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 1160-1167
- Breast cancer classification and prognosis based on gene expression profiles from a population-based study.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100: 10393-10398
- Specific morphological features predictive for the basal phenotype in grade 3 invasive ductal carcinoma of breast.Histopathology. 2006; 49: 22-34
- Triple-negative breast cancer: distinguishing between basal and nonbasal subtypes.Clin Cancer Res. 2009; 15: 2302-2310
- How basal are triple-negative breast cancers?.Int J Cancer. 2008; 123: 236-240
- Molecular characterization of basal-like and non-basal-like triple-negative breast cancer.Oncologist. 2013; 18: 123-133
- Identification of human triple-negative breast cancer subtypes and preclinical models for selection of targeted therapies.J Clin Invest. 2011; 121: 2750-2767
- Differential response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among 7 triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtypes.Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19: 5533-5540
- Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res. 2010; 12: R68
- Gene expression profiling shows medullary breast cancer is a subgroup of basal breast cancers.Cancer Res. 2006; 66: 4636-4644
- Refinement of triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtypes: implications for neoadjuvant chemotherapy selection.PLoS One. 2016; 11 (e0157368)
- Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancers from two phase III randomized adjuvant breast cancer trials: ECOG 2197 and ECOG 1199.J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32: 2959-2966
- Neoadjuvant bevacizumab and anthracycline–taxane–based chemotherapy in 678 triple-negative primary breast cancers; results from the geparquinto study (GBG 44).Ann Oncol. 2013; 24: 2978-2984
- Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are prognostic in triple negative breast cancer and predictive for trastuzumab benefit in early breast cancer: results from the FinHER trial.Ann Oncol. 2014; 25: 1544-1550
- Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes on residual disease after primary chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective multicenter study.Ann Oncol. 2014; 25: 611-618
- Tumor-infiltrating immune cell profiles and their change after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predict response and prognosis of breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16: 488
- Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without carboplatin in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive and triple-negative primary breast cancers.J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33: 983-991
- Identification of molecular apocrine breast tumours by microarray analysis.Oncogene. 2005; 24: 4660-4671
- Role of the androgen receptor in triple-negative breast cancer.Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2016; 14: 186-193
- The clonal and mutational evolution spectrum of primary triple-negative breast cancers.Nature. 2012; 486: 395-399
- Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours.Nature. 2012; 490: 61-70
- Association of p53 protein expression with tumor cell proliferation rate and clinical outcome in node-negative breast cancer.J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993; 85: 200-206
- Prognostic interaction between expression of p53 and estrogen receptor in patients with node-negative breast cancer: results from IBCSG trials VIII and IX.Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14: R143
- Pathological tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using anthracycline and taxanes in patients with triple-negative breast cancer.Exp Ther Med. 2011; 2: 257-264
- p53 deficiency linked to B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) loss enhances metastatic potential by promoting tumor growth in primary and metastatic sites in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of triple-negative breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18: 13
- Specific P53 mutations are associated with de novo resistance to doxorubicin in breast cancer patients.Nat Med. 1996; 2: 811-814
- Influence of TP53 gene alterations and c-erbB-2 expression on the response to treatment with doxorubicin in locally advanced breast cancer.Cancer Res. 2001; 61: 2505-2512
- p53 as a specific prognostic factor in triple-negative breast cancer.Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2009; 39: 217-224
- Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition: a new direction for BRCA and triple-negative breast cancer?.Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13: 218
- TBCRC009: a multicenter phase II clinical trial of platinum monotherapy with biomarker assessment in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33: 1902-1909
- Efficacy of neoadjuvant cisplatin in triple-negative breast cancer.J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 1145-1153
- Androgen receptor expression in primary breast cancer and its predictive and prognostic value in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 130: 477-487
- Both carboplatin and bevacizumab improve pathological complete remission rate in neoadjuvant treatment of triple negative breast cancer: a meta-analysis.PLoS One. 2014; 9 (e108405)
- Neoadjuvant carboplatin in patients with triple-negative and HER2-positive early breast cancer (GeparSixto; GBG 66): a randomised phase 2 trial.Lancet Oncol. 2014; 15: 747-756
- Randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel once per week compared with nanoparticle albumin-bound nab-paclitaxel once per week or ixabepilone with bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: CALGB 40502/NCCTG N063H (Alliance).J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33: 2361-2369
- PIK3CA mutations in androgen receptor–positive triple negative breast cancer confer sensitivity to the combination of PI3K and androgen receptor inhibitors.Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16: 406
- Doubling down on the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway enhances the antitumor efficacy of PARP inhibitor in triple negative breast cancer model beyond BRCA-ness.Neoplasia. 2014; 16: 43-72
- Molecular pathways: PI3K pathway targets in triple-negative breast cancers.Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19: 3738-3744
- The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway.Science. 2002; 296: 1655-1657
- Loss of PTEN expression is associated with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis in Middle Eastern triple-negative breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 151: 541-553
- Spectrum of EGFR gene copy number changes and KRAS gene mutation status in Korean triple negative breast cancer patients.PLoS One. 2013; 8 (e79014)
- Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in triple negative breast cancer: possible implications for targeted therapy.Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13: R35
- High EGFR gene copy number predicts poor outcome in triple-negative breast cancer.Mod Pathol. 2014; 27: 1212-1222
- Integrative molecular profiling of triple negative breast cancers identifies amplicon drivers and potential therapeutic targets.Oncogene. 2010; 29: 2013-2023
- Triple-negative breast cancer: molecular subtypes and new targets for therapy.Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ B. 2015; 35: e31-e39
- The cBio Cancer Genomics Portal: an open platform for exploring multidimensional cancer genomics data: figure 1.Cancer Discov. 2012; 2: 401-404
- Amplification of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in breast cancer and the effects of brivanib alaninate.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 123: 747-755
- FGFR signaling promotes the growth of triple-negative and basal-like breast cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo.Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17: 5275-5286
- The biology of VEGF and its receptors.Nat Med. 2003; 9: 669-676
- Impact of the addition of carboplatin and/or bevacizumab to neoadjuvant once-per-week paclitaxel followed by dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide on pathologic complete response rates in stage II to III triple-negative breast cancer: CALGB 40603.J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33: 13-21
- Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and bevacizumab for HER2-negative breast cancer.N Engl J Med. 2012; 366: 299-309
- Role of vascular density and normalization in response to neoadjuvant bevacizumab and chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112: 14325-14330
- A functionally significant cross-talk between androgen receptor and ErbB2 pathways in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer.Neoplasia. 2008; 10: 542-548
- The impact of androgen receptor expression on breast cancer survival: a retrospective study and meta-analysis.PLoS One. 2013; 8 (e82650)
- The expression and clinical significance of the androgen receptor and E-cadherin in triple-negative breast cancer.Med Oncol. 2012; 29: 526-533
- Antiproliferative effect of androgen receptor inhibition in mesenchymal stem-like triple-negative breast cancer.Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 38: 1003-1014
- Multiple molecular subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer critically rely on androgen receptor and respond to enzalutamide in vivo.Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14: 769-778
- BCL2 in breast cancer: a favourable prognostic marker across molecular subtypes and independent of adjuvant therapy received.Br J Cancer. 2010; 103: 668-675
- Expression of BAG-1 and BcL-2 proteins before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy of locally advanced breast cancer.Cancer Invest. 2004; 22: 248-256
- BCL2 is an independent predictor of outcome in basal-like triple-negative breast cancers treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy.Tumour Biol. 2015; 36: 4243-4252
- Triple negative breast cancer—BCL2 in prognosis and prediction.Curr Drug Targets. 2014; 15: 1166-1175
- Sequence analysis of mutations and translocations across breast cancer subtypes.Nature. 2012; 486: 405-409
- Diverse, biologically relevant, and targetable gene rearrangements in triple-negative breast cancer and other malignancies.Cancer Res. 2016; 76: 4850-4860
- Functionally recurrent rearrangements of the MAST kinase and Notch gene families in breast cancer.Nat Med. 2011; 17: 1646-1651
- Triple-negative breast cancer: the importance of molecular and histologic subtyping, and recognition of low-grade variants.NPJ Breast Cancer. 2016; 2: 16036
- Molecular profiling of the residual disease of triple-negative breast cancers after neoadjuvant chemotherapy identifies actionable therapeutic targets.Cancer Discov. 2014; 4: 232-245
- High-Throughput mutation profiling changes before and 3 weeks after chemotherapy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.PLoS One. 2015; 10 (e0142466)
- p53 biological network: at the crossroads of the cellular-stress response pathway and molecular carcinogenesis.J Nippon Med Sch. 2006; 73: 54-64
- Only missense mutations affecting the dna binding domain of p53 influence outcomes in patients with breast carcinoma.PLoS One. 2013; 8 (e55103)
- TP53 mutation status and gene expression profiles are powerful prognostic markers of breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res. 2007; 9: R30
- Somatic mutations in cancer prognosis and prediction: lessons from TP53 and EGFR genes.Curr Opin Oncol. 2011; 23: 88-92
- Inactivation of p53 in breast cancers correlates with stem cell transcriptional signatures.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010; 107: 22745-22750
- Association between mutation and expression of TP53 as a potential prognostic marker of triple-negative breast cancer.Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 48: 1338-1350
- Cancer susceptibility and the functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2.Cell. 2002; 108: 171-182
- The Fanconi anaemia/BRCA pathway.Nat Rev Cancer. 2003; 3: 23-34
- Triple-negative breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res. 2010; 12: S3
- Germline BRCA1 mutations and a basal epithelial phenotype in breast cancer.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 1482-1485
- Clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients with BRCA-positive and BRCA-negative breast cancer.J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 4282-4288
- Inherited mutations in 17 breast cancer susceptibility genes among a large triple-negative breast cancer cohort unselected for family history of breast cancer.J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33: 304-311
- Prevalence of pathogenic BRCA1/2 germline mutations among 802 women with unilateral triple-negative breast cancer without family cancer history.BMC Cancer. 2018; 18: 265
- The prognostic value of BRCA1 promoter methylation in early stage triple negative breast cancer.J Cancer Ther Res. 2014; 3: 1-11
- Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100: 8418-8423
- Germline BRCA mutation and outcome in young-onset breast cancer (POSH): a prospective cohort study.Lancet Oncol. 2018; 19: 169-180
- Veliparib with temozolomide or carboplatin/paclitaxel versus placebo with carboplatin/paclitaxel in patients with BRCA1/2 locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer: randomized phase II study.Ann Oncol. 2018; 29: 154-161
- Predictors of chemosensitivity in triple negative breast cancer: an integrated genomic analysis.PLoS Med. 2016; 13 (e1002193)
- Carboplatin in BRCA1/2-mutated and triple-negative breast cancer BRCAness subgroups: the TNT trial.Nat Med. 2018; 24: 628-637
- The TNT trial: a randomized phase III trial carboplatin (C) compared with docetaxel (D) for patients with metastatic or recurrent locally advanced triple negative or BRCA1/2 breast cancer (CRUK/07/012).Cancer Res. 2015; 75 (Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; December 9-13, 2014; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia, PA: AACR; 2015) (abstract S3-01)
- The evolution of triple-negative breast cancer: from biology to novel therapeutics.Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ B. 2016; 36: 34-42
- Germline mutation status, pathological complete response, and disease-free survival in triple-negative breast cancer.JAMA Oncol. 2017; 3: 1378
- Response to neoadjuvant therapy with cisplatin in BRCA1-positive breast cancer patients.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009; 115: 359-363
- Neoadjuvant therapy with cisplatin in BRCA1-positive breast cancer patients.J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 502
- Oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and advanced breast cancer: a proof-of-concept trial.Lancet. 2010; 376: 235-244
- BMN 673, a novel and highly potent PARP1/2 inhibitor for the treatment of human cancers with DNA repair deficiency.Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19: 5003-5015
- The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor niraparib (MK4827) in BRCA mutation carriers and patients with sporadic cancer: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial.Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14: 882-892
- A phase I study of veliparib in combination with metronomic cyclophosphamide in adults with refractory solid tumors and lymphomas.Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18: 1726-1734
- Olaparib for metastatic breast cancer in patients with a germline BRCA mutation.N Engl J Med. 2017; 377: 523-533
- EMBRACA: a phase 3 trial comparing talazoparib, an oral PARP inhibitor, to physician’s choice of therapy in patients with advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA mutation.Cancer Res. 2018; 78 (Proceedings of the 2017 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; December 5-9, 2017; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia, PA: AACR; 2018) (abstract GS6-07)
- Androgen receptor levels and association with PIK3CA mutations and prognosis in breast cancer.Clin Cancer Res. 2009; 15: 2472-2478
- PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors in breast cancers: from tumor cell signaling to clinical trials.Pharmacol Ther. 2017; 175: 91-106
- Comprehensive analysis of PTEN status in breast carcinomas.Int J Cancer. 2013; 133: 323-334
- Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase II regulates PI3K/Akt signaling and is lost in human basal-like breast cancers.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010; 107: 22231-22236
- A perspective on anti-EGFR therapies targeting triple-negative breast cancer.Am J Cancer Res. 2016; 6: 1609-1623
- Expression of FGFR1 is an independent prognostic factor in triple-negative breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 151: 99-111
- Frequently increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) copy numbers and decreased BRCA1 mRNA expression in Japanese triple-negative breast cancers.BMC Cancer. 2008; 8: 309
- TBCRC 001: randomized phase II study of cetuximab in combination with carboplatin in stage IV triple-negative breast cancer.J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30: 2615-2623
- Ixabepilone alone or with cetuximab as first-line treatment for advanced/metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.Clin Breast Cancer. 2015; 15: 8-15
- Randomized phase II study of the anti–epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody cetuximab with cisplatin versus cisplatin alone in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31: 2586-2592
- Multicentric neoadjuvant phase II study of panitumumab combined with an anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy in operable triple-negative breast cancer: identification of biologically defined signatures predicting treatment impact.Ann Oncol. 2014; 25: 1570-1577
- Phase I/II trial of neoadjuvant sunitinib administered with weekly paclitaxel/carboplatin in patients with locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 152: 557-567
- Phase III randomized trial of sunitinib versus capecitabine in patients with previously treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 121: 121-131
- Androgen receptor–positive triple negative breast cancer: a unique breast cancer subtype.Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21: 361-367
- Androgen receptor inhibits estrogen receptor–activity and is prognostic in breast cancer.Cancer Res. 2009; 69: 6131-6140
- Prognostic value of androgen receptor expression in operable triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective analysis based on a tissue microarray.Med Oncol. 2012; 29: 406-410
- Androgen receptor expression and outcomes in early breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106: djt319
- Targeting the androgen receptor in triple-negative breast cancer: current perspectives.Onco Targets Ther. 2017; 10: 4675-4685
- Elevated serum estradiol and testosterone concentrations are associated with a high risk for breast cancer. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.Ann Intern Med. 1999; 130: 270-277
- Androgen receptor expression predicts decreased survival in early stage triple-negative breast cancer.Ann Surg Oncol. 2015; 22: 82-89
- Prognostic significance of androgen receptor expression in invasive breast cancer: transcriptomic and protein expression analysis.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 159: 215-227
- Androgen receptor biology in triple negative breast cancer: a case for classification as AR+ or quadruple negative disease.Horm Cancer. 2015; 6: 206-213
- Role of the androgen receptor in breast cancer and preclinical analysis of enzalutamide.Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16: R7
- Phase II trial of bicalutamide in patients with androgen receptor-positive, estrogen receptor-negative metastatic breast cancer.Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19: 5505-5512
- Enzalutamide for the treatment of androgen receptor–expressing triple-negative breast cancer.J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36: 884-890
- Bcl2 negatively regulates DNA double-strand–break repair through a nonhomologous end-joining pathway.Mol Cell. 2008; 29: 488-498
- The relationship between Bcl2, Bax and p53: consequences for cell cycle progression and cell death.Mol Hum Reprod. 1998; 4: 1099-1109
- A Ki67/BCL2 index based on immunohistochemistry is highly prognostic in ER-positive breast cancer.J Pathol. 2012; 226: 97-107
- A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer.N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 2817-2826
- Bcl2 is an independent prognostic marker of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and predicts response to anthracycline combination (ATC) chemotherapy (CT) in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings.Ann Oncol. 2013; 24: 2801-2807
- Cyclin E and survival in patients with breast cancer.N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 1566-1575
- Examining the role of cyclin D1 in breast cancer.Future Oncol. 2011; 7: 753-765
- FDA approval of palbociclib in combination with fulvestrant for the treatment of hormone receptor–positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22: 4968-4972
- US Food and Drug Administration.(Available at:)
- Single-cell dynamics determines response to CDK4/6 inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer.Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23: 5561-5572
- CDK4/6-dependent activation of DUB3 regulates cancer metastasis through SNAIL1.Nat Commun. 2017; 8: 13923
- Registred clinical studies information.(Available at:)
- Inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 9 by dinaciclib suppresses cyclin B1 expression and tumor growth in triple negative breast cancer.Oncotarget. 2016; 7: 56864-56875
- A phase 1 study with dose expansion of the CDK inhibitor dinaciclib (SCH 727965) in combination with epirubicin in patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer.Invest New Drugs. 2015; 33: 890-894