Influential Factors on Risk-reduction Mastectomy in a High-risk Breast Cancer Population With Genetic Predispositions

  • Grace Wei
    MD Program, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, FL
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  • Ambuj Kumar
    Center for Evidence-based Medicine and Health Outcomes Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL
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  • Marie Catherine Lee
    Breast Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL
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  • Xia Wang
    Address for correspondence: Xia Wang, MD PhD, FACMG, GeneHome Hereditary Cancer Screening Clinic, NFCN Multidisciplinary Neurofibromatosis Clinic, TS Alliance Multidisciplinary Tuberous Sclerosis Clinic, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 10920 N. McKinley Dr, Tampa, FL 33612
    GeneHome Hereditary Cancer Screening Clinic, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL
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Published:January 19, 2021DOI:



      Carriers of deleterious mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are presented with critical choices regarding cancer risk management. Risk-reduction mastectomy is a major preventative strategy in this population. Understanding the decision-making process for prophylactic mastectomy is essential in patient-centered care for high-risk carriers and patients with breast cancer. We sought to provide insight into influential factors underlying preventative surgery decisions among individuals with high breast cancer risk.

      Materials and Methods

      We conducted a retrospective chart review of pathogenic carriers of high-risk breast cancer genes who presented to the Moffitt GeneHome clinic between March 2017 and June 2020. Associations between preventative mastectomy choice and influence variables were analyzed via unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models.


      Of 258 high-risk mutation carriers, 104 (40.3%) underwent risk-reduction mastectomy. A significantly higher proportion of mastectomy patients reported prior history of breast cancer (68.9% vs. 16.5%; P < .001) and history of other risk-reduction or noncancer-related surgeries (61.7% vs. 25.8%; P < .001). Significant predictors affecting surgery decision included previous breast cancer history (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 10.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.59-19.63; P < .0001), other risk-reduction or noncancer-related surgical history (aOR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.28-9.47; P < .0001), and age at presentation to the genetics clinic (< 35 years old: aOR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.04-7.4; P = .042; 35-55 years old: aOR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.19-5.18; P = .016).


      Preventive mastectomy decisions are highly personal and complex. In our sample, we observed prior history or concurrent breast cancer, history of other risk-reduction surgery or noncancer-related surgery, and younger age at presentation to the GeneHome clinic to be predictive of mastectomy uptake.


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