Research Article| Volume 21, ISSUE 6, P509-520, December 2021

Molecular Classification of Triple Negative Breast Cancer and the Emergence of Targeted Therapies

Published:September 16, 2021DOI:


      Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents 15% to 20% of all primary breast cancers and is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer. There has been rapid progress in targeted therapy and biomarker development to identify the optimal treatments for TNBC.
      To update recent developments, this article comprehensively reviews molecular classification and biomarkers of TNBC and targeted therapy developments in immunotherapy, PARP and AKT pathway inhibitors, antibody-drug conjugates and androgen receptor blockade.
      The treatment of TNBC has dramatically evolved beyond basic cytotoxic chemotherapy into an expanding domain of targeted therapies tailored to the heterogeneity of this complex and aggressive disease. Progress will continue through the sustained and devoted efforts of our investigators and the patients who dedicatedly enroll in clinical trials. Through a daring persistence to challenge the status quo we now have the opportunity to offer our patients with TNBC a new sense of hope.


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