Review Article| Volume 23, ISSUE 2, P108-124, February 2023

Diagnostic Performance of PET/MRI in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Bivariate Meta-analysis

  • Dan Ruan
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital (Xiamen), Fudan University, Xiamen, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Long Sun
    Address for correspondence: Long Sun MD, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Minnan PET Center, Xiamen Cancer Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, 55 Zhenhai Rd. Xiamen, 361003, China.
    Department of Nuclear Medicine and Minnan PET Center, Xiamen Cancer Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
    Search for articles by this author
Published:November 30, 2022DOI:



      By performing a systematic review and meta-analysis, the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in breast lesions, lymph nodes, and distant metastases was assessed, and the merits and demerits of PET/MRI in the application of breast cancer were comprehensively reviewed.


      Breast cancer-related studies using 18F-FDG PET/MRI as a diagnostic tool published before September 12, 2022 were included. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, log diagnostic odds ratio (LDOR), and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated using Bayesian bivariate meta-analysis in a lesion-based and patient-based manner.


      We ultimately included 24 studies (including 1723 patients). Whether on a lesion-based or patient-based analysis, PET/MRI showed superior overall pooled sensitivity (0.95 [95% CI: 0.92-0.98] & 0.93 [95% CI: 0.88-0.98]), specificity (0.94 [95% CI: 0.90-0.97] & 0.94 [95% CI: 0.92-0.97]), LDOR (5.79 [95% CI: 4.95-6.86] & 5.64 [95% CI: 4.58-7.03]) and AUC (0.98 [95% CI: 0.94-0.99] & 0.98[95% CI: 0.92-0.99]) for diagnostic applications in breast cancer. In the specific subgroup analysis, PET/MRI had high pooled sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of breast lesions and distant metastatic lesions and was especially excellent for bone lesions. PET/MRI performed poorly for diagnosing axillary lymph nodes but was better than for lymph nodes at other sites (pooled sensitivity, specificity, LDOR, AUC: 0.86 vs. 0.58, 0.90 vs. 0.82, 4.09 vs. 1.98, 0.89 vs. 0.84).


      18F-FDG PET/MRI performed excellently in diagnosing breast lesions and distant metastases. It can be applied to the initial diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions, accurate staging of breast cancer patients, and accurate restaging of patients with suspected recurrence.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Clinical Breast Cancer
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Sung H
        • Ferlay J
        • Siegel RL
        • et al.
        Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries.
        CA Cancer J Clin. 2021; 71: 209-249
        • Bevers TB
        • Helvie M
        • Bonaccio E
        • et al.
        Breast cancer screening and diagnosis, version 3.2018, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology.
        J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2018; 16: 1362-1389
        • Yousaf T
        • Dervenoulas G
        • Politis M.
        Advances in MRI methodology.
        Int Rev Neurobiol. 2018; 141: 31-76
        • Lehman CD.
        Clinical indications: what is the evidence?.
        Eur J Radiol. 2012; 81 (Suppl): S82-S84
        • Berg WA.
        Tailored supplemental screening for breast cancer: what now and what next?.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009; 192: 390-399
        • Mann RM
        • Cho N
        • Moy L.
        Breast MRI: state of the Art.
        Radiology. 2019; 292: 520-536
        • Chapman MC
        • Hayward JH
        • Woodard GA
        • Joe BN
        • Lee AY.
        The role of breast MRI in detecting asymptomatic recurrence after therapeutic mastectomy.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020; 215: 254-261
        • Goerres GW
        • Michel SC
        • Fehr MK
        • et al.
        Follow-up of women with breast cancer: comparison between MRI and FDG PET.
        Eur Radiol. 2003; 13: 1635-1644
        • Bitencourt AG
        • Lima EN
        • Chojniak R
        • et al.
        Can 18F-FDG PET improve the evaluation of suspicious breast lesions on MRI?.
        Eur J Radiol. 2014; 83: 1381-1386
        • Kumar R
        • Chauhan A
        • Zhuang H
        • Chandra P
        • Schnall M
        • Alavi A.
        Clinicopathologic factors associated with false negative FDG-PET in primary breast cancer.
        Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006; 98: 267-274
        • Imbriaco M
        • Caprio MG
        • Limite G
        • et al.
        Dual-time-point 18F-FDG PET/CT versus dynamic breast MRI of suspicious breast lesions.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008; 191: 1323-1330
        • Atallah D
        • Moubarak M
        • Arab W
        • El Kassis N
        • Chahine G
        • Salem C.
        MRI-based predictive factors of axillary lymph node status in breast cancer.
        Breast J. 2020; 26: 2177-2182
        • Kim EJ
        • Kim SH
        • Kang BJ
        • Choi BG
        • Song BJ
        • Choi JJ.
        Diagnostic value of breast MRI for predicting metastatic axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients: diffusion-weighted MRI and conventional MRI.
        Magn Reson Imaging. 2014; 32: 1230-1236
        • Dietzel M
        • Zoubi R
        • Burmeister HP
        • Runnebaum IB
        • Kaiser WA
        • Baltzer PA.
        Combined staging at one stop using MR mammography: evaluation of an extended protocol to screen for distant metastasis in primary breast cancer - initial results and diagnostic accuracy in a prospective study.
        Rofo. 2012; 184: 618-623
        • Chung HL
        • Shin K
        • Sun J
        • Leung JWT.
        Extra-axillary nodal metastases in breast cancer: comparison of ultrasound, MRI, PET/CT, and CT.
        Clin Imaging. 2021; 79: 113-118
        • Cooper KL
        • Meng Y
        • Harnan S
        • et al.
        Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of axillary lymph node metastases in early breast cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation.
        Health Technol Assess. 2011; 15: 1-134
        • Grankvist J
        • Fisker R
        • Iyer V
        • et al.
        MRI and PET/CT of patients with bone metastases from breast carcinoma.
        Eur J Radiol. 2012; 81: e13-e18
        • Kitajima K
        • Nakamoto Y
        • Okizuka H
        • et al.
        Accuracy of whole-body FDG-PET/CT for detecting brain metastases from non-central nervous system tumors.
        Ann Nucl Med. 2008; 22: 595-602
        • Rappeport ED
        • Loft A
        • Berthelsen AK
        • et al.
        Contrast-enhanced FDG-PET/CT vs. SPIO-enhanced MRI vs. FDG-PET vs. CT in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer: a prospective study with intraoperative confirmation.
        Acta Radiol. 2007; 48: 369-378
        • Rauscher I
        • Eiber M
        • Furst S
        • et al.
        PET/MR imaging in the detection and characterization of pulmonary lesions: technical and diagnostic evaluation in comparison to PET/CT.
        J Nucl Med. 2014; 55: 724-729
        • Kirchner J
        • Sawicki LM
        • Nensa F
        • et al.
        Prospective comparison of (18)F-FDG PET/MRI and (18)F-FDG PET/CT for thoracic staging of non-small cell lung cancer.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2019; 46: 437-445
        • Beiderwellen K
        • Geraldo L
        • Ruhlmann V
        • et al.
        Accuracy of [18F]FDG PET/MRI for the Detection of Liver Metastases.
        PLoS One. 2015; 10e0137285
        • Hong SB
        • Choi SH
        • Kim KW
        • et al.
        Diagnostic performance of [(18)F]FDG-PET/MRI for liver metastasis in patients with primary malignancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Eur Radiol. 2019; 29: 3553-3563
        • Heacock L
        • Weissbrot J
        • Raad R
        • et al.
        PET/MRI for the evaluation of patients with lymphoma: initial observations.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015; 204: 842-848
        • Bruckmann NM
        • Kirchner J
        • Umutlu L
        • et al.
        Prospective comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/MRI, MRI, CT, and bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases in the initial staging of primary breast cancer patients.
        Eur Radiol. 2021; 31: 8714-8724
        • Page MJ
        • McKenzie JE
        • Bossuyt PM
        • et al.
        The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews.
        BMJ. 2021; 372: n71
      1. Bossuyt PMM, Davenport CF, Deeks JJ, et al. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy. 2013.

        • Garcia Vicente AM
        • Delgado-Bolton RC
        • Amo-Salas M
        • et al.
        (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of malignancy in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017; 44: 1575-1587
        • Whiting PF
        • Rutjes AW
        • Westwood ME
        • et al.
        QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies.
        Ann Intern Med. 2011; 155: 529-536
        • Guo J
        • Riebler A.
        meta4diag: Bayesian Bivariate meta-analysis of diagnostic test studies for routine practice.
        J Statistical Software. 2018; 83: 1-31
        • Chappell FM
        • Raab GM
        • Wardlaw JM.
        When are summary ROC curves appropriate for diagnostic meta-analyses?.
        Stat Med. 2009; 28: 2653-2668
        • Moy L
        • Noz ME
        • Maguire Jr., GQ
        • et al.
        Role of fusion of prone FDG-PET and magnetic resonance imaging of the breasts in the evaluation of breast cancer.
        Breast J. 2010; 16: 369-376
        • Heusner TA
        • Hahn S
        • Jonkmanns C
        • et al.
        Diagnostic accuracy of fused positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance mammography: initial results.
        Br J Radiol. 2011; 84: 126-135
        • Pinker K
        • Bogner W
        • Baltzer P
        • et al.
        Improved differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors with multiparametric 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging: a feasibility study.
        Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20: 3540-3549
        • Taneja S
        • Jena A
        • Goel R
        • Sarin R
        • Kaul S
        Simultaneous whole-body (1)(8)F-FDG PET-MRI in primary staging of breast cancer: a pilot study.
        Eur J Radiol. 2014; 83: 2231-2239
        • Catalano OA
        • Nicolai E
        • Rosen BR
        • et al.
        Comparison of CE-FDG-PET/CT with CE-FDG-PET/MR in the evaluation of osseous metastases in breast cancer patients.
        Br J Cancer. 2015; 112: 1452-1460
        • Grueneisen J
        • Nagarajah J
        • Buchbender C
        • et al.
        Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging for local tumor staging in patients with primary breast cancer: a comparison with positron emission tomography/computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
        Invest Radiol. 2015; 50: 505-513
        • Botsikas D
        • Kalovidouri A
        • Becker M
        • et al.
        Clinical utility of 18F-FDG-PET/MR for preoperative breast cancer staging.
        Eur Radiol. 2016; 26: 2297-2307
        • Melsaether AN
        • Raad RA
        • Pujara AC
        • et al.
        Comparison of whole-body (18)F FDG PET/MR imaging and whole-body (18)F FDG PET/CT in terms of lesion detection and radiation dose in patients with breast cancer.
        Radiology. 2016; 281: 193-202
        • Pujara AC
        • Raad RA
        • Ponzo F
        • et al.
        Standardized uptake values from PET/MRI in metastatic breast cancer: an organ-based comparison with PET/CT.
        Breast J. 2016; 22: 264-273
        • Sawicki LM
        • Grueneisen J
        • Schaarschmidt BM
        • et al.
        Evaluation of (1)(8)F-FDG PET/MRI, (1)(8)F-FDG PET/CT, MRI, and CT in whole-body staging of recurrent breast cancer.
        Eur J Radiol. 2016; 85: 459-465
        • Garcia-Velloso MJ
        • Ribelles MJ
        • Rodriguez M
        • et al.
        MRI fused with prone FDG PET/CT improves the primary tumour staging of patients with breast cancer.
        Eur Radiol. 2017; 27: 3190-3198
        • Grueneisen J
        • Sawicki LM
        • Wetter A
        • et al.
        Evaluation of PET and MR datasets in integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI: a comparison of different MR sequences for whole-body restaging of breast cancer patients.
        Eur J Radiol. 2017; 89: 14-19
        • Jena A
        • Taneja S
        • Singh A
        • Negi P
        • Mehta SB
        • Sarin R.
        Role of pharmacokinetic parameters derived with high temporal resolution DCE MRI using simultaneous PET/MRI system in breast cancer: a feasibility study.
        Eur J Radiol. 2017; 86: 261-266
        • Kirchner J
        • Grueneisen J
        • Martin O
        • et al.
        Local and whole-body staging in patients with primary breast cancer: a comparison of one-step to two-step staging utilizing (18)F-FDG-PET/MRI.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2018; 45: 2328-2337
        • Botsikas D
        • Bagetakos I
        • Picarra M
        • et al.
        What is the diagnostic performance of 18-FDG-PET/MR compared to PET/CT for the N- and M- staging of breast cancer?.
        Eur Radiol. 2019; 29: 1787-1798
        • Vogl WD
        • Pinker K
        • Helbich TH
        • et al.
        Automatic segmentation and classification of breast lesions through identification of informative multiparametric PET/MRI features.
        Eur Radiol Exp. 2019; 3: 18
        • Bruckmann NM
        • Sawicki LM
        • Kirchner J
        • et al.
        Prospective evaluation of whole-body MRI and (18)F-FDG PET/MRI in N and M staging of primary breast cancer patients.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2020; 47: 2816-2825
        • Kirchner J
        • Martin O
        • Umutlu L
        • et al.
        Impact of (18)F-FDG PET/MR on therapeutic management in high risk primary breast cancer patients - a prospective evaluation of staging algorithms.
        Eur J Radiol. 2020; 128108975
        • Morawitz J
        • Bruckmann NM
        • Dietzel F
        • et al.
        Determining the axillary nodal status with four current imaging modalities including (18)F-FDG PET/MRI in newly diagnosed breast cancer: A comparative study using histopathology as reference standard.
        J Nucl Med. 2021; 62: 1677-1683
        • Umutlu L
        • Kirchner J
        • Bruckmann NM
        • et al.
        Multiparametric Integrated (18)F-FDG PET/MRI-Based Radiomics for Breast Cancer Phenotyping and Tumor Decoding.
        Cancers (Basel). 2021; 13: 2928
        • Morawitz J
        • Bruckmann NM
        • Dietzel F
        • et al.
        Comparison of nodal staging between CT, MRI, and [(18)F]-FDG PET/MRI in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2022; 49: 992-1001
        • Romeo V
        • Clauser P
        • Rasul S
        • et al.
        AI-enhanced simultaneous multiparametric (18)F-FDG PET/MRI for accurate breast cancer diagnosis.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2022; 49: 596-608
        • de Perrot T
        • Rager O
        • Scheffler M
        • et al.
        Potential of hybrid (1)(8)F-fluorocholine PET/MRI for prostate cancer imaging.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014; 41: 1744-1755
        • Grueneisen J
        • Schaarschmidt BM
        • Beiderwellen K
        • et al.
        Diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging in simultaneous 18F-FDG PET/MR imaging for whole-body staging of women with pelvic malignancies.
        J Nucl Med. 2014; 55: 1930-1935
        • Tsuyoshi H
        • Tsujikawa T
        • Yamada S
        • Okazawa H
        • Yoshida Y.
        Diagnostic value of [(18)F]FDG PET/MRI for staging in patients with ovarian cancer.
        EJNMMI Res. 2020; 10: 117
        • Ma JT
        • Han CB
        • Zheng JH
        • et al.
        Hybrid PET/MRI-based delineation of gross tumor volume in head and neck cancer and tumor parameter analysis.
        Nucl Med Commun. 2017; 38: 642-649
        • Buchbender C
        • Heusner TA
        • Lauenstein TC
        • Bockisch A
        • Antoch G.
        Oncologic PET/MRI, part 1: tumors of the brain, head and neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
        J Nucl Med. 2012; 53: 928-938
        • Ming Y
        • Wu N
        • Qian T
        • et al.
        Progress and future trends in PET/CT and PET/MRI molecular imaging approaches for breast cancer.
        Front Oncol. 2020; 10: 1301
        • Han S
        • Choi JY.
        Impact of 18F-FDG PET, PET/CT, and PET/MRI on staging and management as an initial staging modality in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Clin Nucl Med. 2021; 46: 271-282
        • Zhang X
        • Liu Y
        • Luo H
        • Zhang J.
        PET/CT and MRI for identifying axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Magn Reson Imaging. 2020; 52: 1840-1851
        • Lin CY
        • Lin CL
        • Kao CH.
        Staging/restaging performance of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer: a review and meta-analysis.
        Eur J Radiol. 2018; 107: 158-165
        • Lu XR
        • Qu MM
        • Zhai YN
        • Feng W
        • Gao Y
        • Lei JQ.
        Diagnostic role of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in the TNM staging of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Ann Palliat Med. 2021; 10: 4328-4337
        • Zamora J
        • Abraira V
        • Muriel A
        • Khan K
        • Coomarasamy A.
        Meta-DiSc: a software for meta-analysis of test accuracy data.
        BMC Med Res Methodol. 2006; 6: 31
        • Helbich TH
        • Roberts TP
        • Gossmann A
        • et al.
        Quantitative gadopentetate-enhanced MRI of breast tumors: testing of different analytic methods.
        Magn Reson Med. 2000; 44: 915-924
        • Bogner W
        • Pinker-Domenig K
        • Bickel H
        • et al.
        Readout-segmented echo-planar imaging improves the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR breast examinations at 3.0 T.
        Radiology. 2012; 263: 64-76
        • Quon A
        • Gambhir SS.
        FDG-PET and beyond: molecular breast cancer imaging.
        J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 1664-1673
        • Ueda S
        • Tsuda H
        • Asakawa H
        • et al.
        Clinicopathological and prognostic relevance of uptake level using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET/CT) in primary breast cancer.
        Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008; 38: 250-258
        • Hegarty C
        • Collins CD.
        PET/CT and breast cancer.
        Cancer Imaging. 2010; : S59-S62
        • Crippa F
        • Seregni E
        • Agresti R
        • et al.
        Association between [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and postoperative histopathology, hormone receptor status, thymidine labelling index and p53 in primary breast cancer: a preliminary observation.
        Eur J Nucl Med. 1998; 25: 1429-1434
        • Adejolu M
        • Huo L
        • Rohren E
        • Santiago L
        • Yang WT.
        False-positive lesions mimicking breast cancer on FDG PET and PET/CT.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012; 198: W304-W314
        • Ogasawara Y
        • Doihara H
        • Shiraiwa M
        • Ishihara S.
        Multidetector-row computed tomography for the preoperative evaluation of axillary nodal status in patients with breast cancer.
        Surg Today. 2008; 38: 104-108
        • Goorts B
        • Voo S
        • van Nijnatten TJA
        • et al.
        Hybrid (18)F-FDG PET/MRI might improve locoregional staging of breast cancer patients prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017; 44: 1796-1805
        • Catalano OA
        • Daye D
        • Signore A
        • et al.
        Staging performance of whole-body DWI, PET/CT and PET/MRI in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.
        Int J Oncol. 2017; 51: 281-288
        • de Mooij CM
        • Sunen I
        • Mitea C
        • et al.
        Diagnostic performance of PET/computed tomography versus PET/MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging in the N- and M-staging of breast cancer patients.
        Nucl Med Commun. 2020; 41: 995-1004
        • Beiderwellen K
        • Huebner M
        • Heusch P
        • et al.
        Whole-body [(1)(8)F]FDG PET/MRI vs. PET/CT in the assessment of bone lesions in oncological patients: initial results.
        Eur Radiol. 2014; 24: 2023-2030
        • Mohammed TL
        • Chowdhry A
        • Reddy GP
        • et al.
        ACR Appropriateness Criteria(R) screening for pulmonary metastases.
        J Thorac Imaging. 2011; 26: W1-W3
        • Jena A
        • Taneja S
        • Singh A
        • et al.
        Reliability of (18)F-FDG PET metabolic parameters derived using simultaneous pet/mri and correlation with prognostic factors of invasive ductal carcinoma: a feasibility study.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017; 209: 662-670
        • Incoronato M
        • Grimaldi AM
        • Mirabelli P
        • et al.
        Circulating miRNAs in untreated breast cancer: an exploratory multimodality morpho-functional study.
        Cancers (Basel). 2019; 11: 876
        • Choi JH
        • Kim HA
        • Kim W
        • et al.
        Early prediction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy response for advanced breast cancer using PET/MRI image deep learning.
        Sci Rep. 2020; 10: 21149
        • Morawitz J
        • Kirchner J
        • Martin O
        • et al.
        Prospective correlation of prognostic immunohistochemical markers with SUV and ADC derived from dedicated hybrid breast 18F-FDG PET/MRI in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer.
        Clin Nucl Med. 2021; 46: 201-205
        • Incoronato M
        • Grimaldi AM
        • Cavaliere C
        • et al.
        Relationship between functional imaging and immunohistochemical markers and prediction of breast cancer subtype: a PET/MRI study.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2018; 45: 1680-1693
        • Schiano C
        • Franzese M
        • Pane K
        • et al.
        Hybrid (18)F-FDG-PET/MRI measurement of standardized uptake value coupled with Yin Yang 1 signature in metastatic breast cancer.
        A Preliminary Study. Cancers (Basel). 2019; 11: 1444
        • Catalano OA
        • Horn GL
        • Signore A
        • et al.
        PET/MR in invasive ductal breast cancer: correlation between imaging markers and histological phenotype.
        Br J Cancer. 2017; 116: 893-902
        • Boellaard R
        • O'Doherty MJ
        • Weber WA
        • et al.
        FDG PET and PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for tumour PET imaging: version 1.0.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010; 37: 181-200
        • Basu S
        • Alavi A.
        Partial volume correction of standardized uptake values and the dual time point in FDG-PET imaging: should these be routinely employed in assessing patients with cancer?.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007; 34: 1527-1529
        • Mavi A
        • Urhan M
        • Yu JQ
        • et al.
        Dual time point 18F-FDG PET imaging detects breast cancer with high sensitivity and correlates well with histologic subtypes.
        J Nucl Med. 2006; 47: 1440-1446
        • Cheng G
        • Torigian DA
        • Zhuang H
        • Alavi A.
        When should we recommend use of dual time-point and delayed time-point imaging techniques in FDG PET?.
        Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013; 40: 779-787
        • Costantini DL
        • Vali R
        • Chan J
        • McQuattie S
        • Charron M.
        Dual-time-point FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of pediatric tumors.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013; 200: 408-413
        • Fowler AM
        • Kumar M
        • Bancroft LH
        • et al.
        Measuring glucose uptake in primary invasive breast cancer using simultaneous time-of-flight breast PET/MRI: a method comparison study with prone PET/CT.
        Radiol Imaging Cancer. 2021; 3e200091
        • Laffon E
        • de Clermont H
        • Begueret H
        • et al.
        Assessment of dual-time-point 18F-FDG-PET imaging for pulmonary lesions.
        Nucl Med Commun. 2009; 30: 455-461