- De novo metastatic breast cancer (dnMBC) represents a minority of MBC cases, and as such, its genomics are poorly understood. Characterizing the genomics of dnMBC represents an opportunity to delineate metastatic drivers in the absence of treatment selection. In this review, we first summarize the literature of the genomics of MBC which showed that MBCs have greater mutational burden than early stage, treatment naïve breast cancers. We then turn to recent studies that have sought to focus on dnMBC.
- Women with metastatic breast cancer remains a heterogeneous group of patients with different prognostic outcomes and therapeutic needs. Young women with de novo metastatic breast cancer (dnMBC) represent a peculiar population with respect to tumor biology, prognosis, clinical management and survivorship issues. Overall, these patients are able to attain long-term survival with a proper management of both primary tumor and distant metastases. On the other hand, they are also at higher risk of experiencing a deterioration in their quality of life (QoL) due to primary cancer-related side effects.
- Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents 15% to 20% of all primary breast cancers and is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer. There has been rapid progress in targeted therapy and biomarker development to identify the optimal treatments for TNBC. To update recent developments, this article comprehensively reviews molecular classification and biomarkers of TNBC and targeted therapy developments in immunotherapy, PARP and AKT pathway inhibitors, antibody-drug conjugates and androgen receptor blockade.
- Breast cancer that is characterized by amplification or over expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) accounts for 15% to 20% of all forms of the disease. Although HER2 amplification has been associated with aggressive disease behavior and poor prognosis, the development and availability of a number of HER2-targeted agents has led to improved outcomes for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, with data suggesting that overall survival has substantially improved in the past 2 decades.
- Breast cancer is a complex disease, and accurate systemic staging is an essential aspect of the evaluation of a patient with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Considering that the chance of having metastatic disease at breast cancer diagnosis is different in each patient and depends on a variety of anatomic and biologic factors, it is crucial to understand that some populations may benefit from more intensive staging because their pretest probability of metastatic disease is higher than that of the average patient.
- Most cases of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) arise as a recurrence of a previously treated early breast cancer. Distinct from recurrent MBC is de novo MBC (dnMBC), which describes patients who present with distant sites of disease at initial diagnosis and is reviewed here. dnMBC represents approximately 3% to 6% of new breast cancer diagnoses in high-income countries. This incidence has not declined despite decades of widespread use of population-based mammography screening. Overrepresentation of both biologically aggressive tumors and patients negatively impacted by social determinants of health are characteristics of dnMBC.
- Micro-Abstract De novo stage IV metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and early stage breast cancer that progresses to metastatic disease (recurrent MBC) are considered the same when determining guideline-based care, but differences in treatment patterns exist. This study used a novel visualization approach to identify differences and similarities in treatment between de novo and recurrent MBC.